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Nachman of Breslov



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Nachman of Breslov
Breslover Rebbe
File:Nahmantomb.JPG
Grave of Nachman of Breslov
Full name Nachman of Breslov
Main work Likutey Moharan
Born 4 April 1772 (Rosh Chodesh Nisan 5532)

Medzhybizh, Ukraine
Died 16 October 1810 (18 Tishrei 5571)

Uman, Ukraine
Buried Uman, Ukraine
Dynasty Breslov
Predecessor none
Successor none
Father Simcha
Mother Feiga
Wife1 Sashia, daughter of Rabbi Ephraim of Ossatin
Issue1 Adil
Sarah
Feiga
Chaya
Miriam
daughter (died in infancy)
Yaakov
Shlomo Ephraim
Wife 2 name unknown
For the amora, see Rav Nachman of Nehardea.

Nachman of Breslov (Hebrew: נחמן מברסלב‎), also known as Reb Nachman of Bratslav, Reb Nachman Breslover (Yiddish: רב נחמן ברעסלאווער), Nachman from Uman (April 4, 1772 – October 16, 1810), was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic dynasty.

Rebbe Nachman, a great grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, breathed new life into the Hasidic movement by combining the esoteric secrets of Judaism (the Kabbalah) with in-depth Torah scholarship. He attracted thousands of followers during his lifetime and his influence continues until today.(1) Rebbe Nachman's religious philosophy revolved around closeness to God and speaking to God in normal conversation "as you would with a best friend." The concept of hitbodedut is central to his thinking.(2)

Contents




(edit) Biography

Rebbe Nachman was born in the town of Medzhybizh, Ukraine. His mother, Feiga, was the daughter of Adil (also spelled Udel), daughter of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidic Judaism. His father Simcha was the son of Rabbi Nachman of Horodenka (Gorodenka), one of the Baal Shem Tov's disciples, after whom Rebbe Nachman was named. Rebbe Nachman had two brothers, Yechiel Zvi and Yisroel Mes, and a sister, Perel.(3)

Rebbe Nachman told his disciples that as a small child, he eschewed the pleasures of this world and set his sights on spirituality.(4) He paid his melamed (teacher) three extra coins for every page of Talmud that he taught him, beyond the fee that his father was paying the teacher, to encourage the teacher to cover more material.(5) From the age of six, he would go out at night to pray at the grave of his great-grandfather, the Baal Shem Tov, and immerse in the mikveh afterward.(6)

At the age of 13, he married Sashia, daughter of Rabbi Ephraim, and moved to his father-in-law's house in Ossatin (Staraya Osota today). He acquired his first disciple on his wedding day, a young man named Shimon who was several years older than he.(7) He continued to teach and attract new followers in the Medvedevka region in the years that followed.

In 1798-1799 he traveled to the Land of Israel, where he was received with honor by the Hasidim living in Haifa, Tiberias, and Safed. In Tiberias, his influence brought about a reconciliation between the Lithuanian and Volhynian Hasidim.(8)

Shortly before Rosh Hashana 1800, Rebbe Nachman moved to the town of Zlatopol. The townspeople invited him to have the final word on who would lead the Rosh Hashana and Yom Kippur prayer services. The man chosen to lead Neilah, the final prayer service of Yom Kippur, did not meet the Rebbe's approval. Suddenly the man was struck dumb and forced to step down, to his great embarrassment. After the fast ended, Rebbe Nachman spoke in a light-hearted way about what the man's true intentions had been, and the man was so incensed that he denounced Rebbe Nachman to Rabbi Aryeh Leib of Shpola, known as the "Shpoler Zeide", a prominent Hasidic rabbi and early disciple of Rabbi Pinchas of Koritz, who was a leading figure in the first generation of Hasidut. Thus began the Shpoler Zeide's vehement campaign against Breslov Hasidism.(9)

In 1802, Rebbe Nachman moved to the town of Bratslav, Ukraine, also known as "Breslov". Here he declared, "Today we have planted the name of the Breslover Hasidim. This name will never disappear, because my followers will always be called after the town of Breslov."(10)

His move brought him into contact with Nathan of Breslov ("Reb Noson"), a 22-year-old Torah scholar in the nearby town of Nemirov, eight miles north of Breslov. Over the next eight years, Reb Noson became his foremost disciple and scribe, recording all of Rebbe Nachman's formal lessons as well as transcribing the Rebbe's magnum opus, Likutey Moharan. After Rebbe Nachman's death, Reb Noson recorded all the informal conversations he and other disciples had had with the Rebbe, and published all of Rebbe Nachman's works as well as his own commentaries on them.

Rebbe Nachman and Sashia had six daughters and two sons. Two daughters died in infancy and the two sons (Ya'akov and Shlomo Efraim) both died within a year and a half of their births. Their surviving children were Adil, Sarah, Miriam, and Chayah.(11) Sashia died of tuberculosis on June 11, 1807, the eve of Shavuot, and was buried in Zaslov just before the festival began.(12) The following month, Rebbe Nachman became engaged to a woman from Brody (name unknown). Right after the engagement, he contracted tuberculosis.(13)

In May 1810, a fire broke out in Bratslav, destroying Rebbe Nachman's home. A group of maskilim (Jews belonging to the secular Haskalah (Enlightenment) movement) living in Uman, Ukraine invited him to live in their town, and provided housing for him as his illness worsened. Many years before, Rebbe Nachman had passed through Uman and told his disciples, "This is a good place to be buried."(14) He was referring to the cemetery where more than 20,000 Jewish martyrs were buried following the Haidamak Massacre of Uman of 1768. Rebbe Nachman died of tuberculosis at the age of 38 on the fourth day of Sukkot 1810, and was buried in that cemetery.(15)

(edit) Pilgrimage tradition

During the Rebbe's lifetime, thousands of Hasidim traveled to be with him for the Jewish holidays of Rosh Hashana, Chanuka, and Shavuot, when he delivered his formal lessons. On the last Rosh Hashana of his life, Rebbe Nachman stressed to his followers the importance of being with him for that holiday in particular. Therefore, after the Rebbe's death, Reb Noson instituted an annual pilgrimage to the Rebbe's gravesite on Rosh Hashana.

This annual pilgrimage, called the Rosh Hashana kibbutz, drew thousands of Hasidim from all over Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and even Poland until 1917, when the Bolshevik Revolution forced it to continue clandestinely. Only a dozen or so Hasidim risked making the annual pilgrimage during the Communist era, as the authorities regularly raided the gathering and often arrested and imprisoned worshippers. Beginning in the mid-1960s, Hasidim who lived outside Russia began to sneak into Uman to pray at Rebbe Nachman's grave during the year. After the fall of Communism in 1989, the gates were reopened entirely. In 2008, approximately 25,000 people from all over the world participated in this annual pilgrimage.(16)

(edit) Teachings

In his short life, Rebbe Nachman achieved much acclaim as a teacher and spiritual leader, and is considered a seminal figure in the history of Hasidism. His contributions to Hasidic Judaism include the following:

  • He rejected the idea of hereditary Hasidic dynasties, and taught that each Hasid must "search for the tzaddik ('saintly/righteous person')" for himself — and within himself. He believed that every Jew has the potential to become a tzaddik.(17)
  • He emphasized that a tzaddik should magnify the blessings on the community through his mitzvot. However, the tzaddik cannot "absolve" a Hasid of his sins, and the Hasid should pray only to God, not to the Rebbe. The purpose of confiding in another human being is to unburden the soul as part of the process of repentance and healing. (Modern psychology supports this idea, which is the "Fifth Step" in many 12-step programs for recovery.)
  • In his early life, he stressed the practice of fasting and self-castigation as the most effective means of repentance. In later years, however, he abandoned these severe ascetisms because he felt they may lead to depression and sadness. He told his followers not to be "fanatics". Rather, they should choose one personal mitzvah to be very strict about, and do the others with the normal amount of care.(18)
  • He encouraged his disciples to take every opportunity to increase holiness in themselves and their daily activities. For example, by marrying and living with one's spouse according to Torah law, one elevates sexual intimacy to an act bespeaking honor and respect to the God-given powers of procreation. This in turn safeguards the sign of the covenant, the brit milah ("covenant of circumcision") which is considered the symbol of the everlasting pact between God and the Jewish people.
  • He urged everyone to seek out his own and others' good points in order to approach life in a state of continual happiness. If one cannot find any "good points" in himself, let him search his deeds. If he finds that his deeds were driven by ulterior motives or improper thoughts, let him search for the positive aspects within them. And if he cannot find any good points, he should at least be happy that he is a Jew. This "good point" is God's doing, not his.
  • He placed great stress on living with faith, simplicity, and joy. He encouraged his followers to clap, sing and dance during or after their prayers, bringing them to a closer relationship with God.
  • He emphasized the importance of intellectual learning and Torah scholarship. "You can originate Torah novellae, but do not change anything in the laws of the Shulchan Aruch!" he said. He and his disciples were thoroughly familiar with all the classic texts of Judaism, including the Talmud and its commentaries, Midrash, and Shulchan Aruch.
  • He frequently recited extemporaneous prayers. He taught that his followers should spend an hour alone each day, talking aloud to God in his or her own words, as if "talking to a good friend." This is in addition to the prayers in the siddur. Breslover Hasidim still follow this practice today, which is known as hitbodedut (literally, "to make oneself be in solitude"). Rebbe Nachman taught that the best place to do hitbodedut was in a field or forest, among the natural works of God's creation.
  • He taught, "The purpose of knowledge is that we should not know (anything)" (Likutey Moharan II, 83.

(edit) Tikkun HaKlali

Another prominent feature of Rebbe Nachman's teachings is his Tikkun HaKlali ("General Rectification" or "General Remedy") for spiritual correction. This general rectification can override the spiritual harm caused by many sins, or one sin whose ramifications are many. Rebbe Nachman revealed that ten specific Psalms, recited in this order: Psalms 16, 32, 41, 42, 59, 77, 90, 105, 137, and 150, constitute a special remedy for the sin of wasting seed, which defiles the sign of the covenant, and, by extension, all the other mitzvot. Most Breslover Hasidim try to say the Tikkun HaKlali daily.

In April 1810, Rebbe Nachman called two of his closest disciples, Rabbi Aharon of Breslov and Rabbi Naftali of Nemirov, to act as witnesses for an unprecedented vow:

"If someone comes to my grave, gives a coin to charity, and says these ten Psalms (the Tikkun HaKlali), I will pull him out from the depths of Gehinnom!" (Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom #141). "It makes no difference what he did until that day, but from that day on, he must take upon himself not to return to his foolish ways".(19)

This vow spurred many followers to undertake the trip to Rebbe Nachman's grave, even during the Communist crackdown.

(edit) Controversy

Rebbe Nachman lived at a time of controversy between Hasidim and more traditional Orthodox Jews, known as Misnagdim (opponents) for their opposition to hasidism. It was also a time of friction between Hasidim and proponents of Jewish emancipation and Haskalah. (In 1816, Joseph Perl wrote a denunciation of Hasidic mysticism and beliefs, in which he criticized many of the writings of Nachman, who had died six years earlier. Austrian imperial censors blocked publication of Perl's treatise, fearing that it would foment unrest among the empire's Jewish subjects.)

During his lifetime, Rebbe Nachman also encountered opposition from within the Hasidic movement itself, from people who questioned his new approach to Hasidut. One of these was Rabbi Aryeh Leib of Shpola, known as the "Shpoler Zeide" (Grandfather/Sage of Shpola) (1725–1812), who had supported Rebbe Nachman in his early years but began to oppose him after he moved to Zlatipola, near Shpola, in 1802.

The Shpoler Zeide saw Rebbe Nachman's teachings as deviating from classical Judaism and from the teachings of the Baal Shem Tov. Some postulate that the Zeide felt threatened because Rebbe Nachman was moving in on his territory and taking disciples away from him. Still others claim that Rebbe Nachman was a threat to other rebbes because he opposed the institutional dynasties that were already beginning to form in the Hasidic world. (Rebbe Nachman himself did not found a dynasty; his two sons died in infancy and he appointed no successor.)

A number of prominent figures of Hasidut supported Rebbe Nachman against the Shpoler Zeide's opposition, including Rabbi Levi Yitzchok of Berditchev, Rabbi Gedalia of Linitz, Rabbi Zev Wolf of Charni-Ostrov, and Rabbi Avraham of Kalisk. At one point, a number of Hasidic rabbis gathered in Berditchev to place the Shpoler Zeide in cherem (a rabbinic form of excommunication) for showing contempt to a true Torah scholar. Their effort was nixed, however, when Rabbi Levi Yitzchak heard about the idea and persuaded them to desist.(20)

(edit) Did he believe he was the Messiah?

(edit) Secular academic view

The Encyclopaedia Judaica and other secular academic sources claim that Rebbe Nachman saw himself as the Messiah. One proof that secular academics offer is that the messianic personality is expected to rectify errant souls. Rebbe Nachman did speak to his disciples about the principle of tikkun (rectification of souls), and even suggested that he was capable of rectifying souls. However, this power was also claimed by Rebbes of other Hasidic sects. The principle of tikkun is also found throughout the teachings of (Rabbi Isaac Luria), who preceded Rebbe Nachman by several hundred years.

Some secular academics postulate that Rebbe Nachman was influenced by the teachings of Sabbatai Zevi and Jacob Frank, false messiahs of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, respectively, but that he was not actually a Sabbatean or Frankist. As proof, they note that Rebbe Nachman's thinking on tikkun olam, the Kabbalistic healing of the universe, bears similarities to the teachings of Sabbatai Zevi.

In his writings, Rebbe Nachman refers to Sabbetai Zevi as SHaTZ (an acronym for his Hebrew name, SHabbetai TZvi, and concludes the reference with the expression yimach shemo (may his name be obliterated). The latter expression is generally reserved for the worst enemies of the Jewish people.

(edit) Breslov view

Rebbe Nachman never claimed that he was the Messiah. He taught the general Hasidic concept of the tzaddik ha-dor (tzadik of the generation), which is the idea that in every generation, a special, saintly person is born who could potentially become the Jewish Messiah if conditions were right in the world. Otherwise, this tzaddik lives and dies the same as any other holy man. Toward the end of his life, he said, "My light will burn until the coming of the Messiah" — indicating that the Messiah had not yet arrived. Breslover Hasidim do not believe Rebbe Nachman was the Messiah, but they do believe that the light of his teachings continues to illuminate the paths of Jews from many disparate backgrounds.

It should be noted that the Sabbateans based their teachings on the same Zohar and Lurianic kabbalah that are considered part of classical Judaism by Hasidism. Where the Sabbateans diverged from accepted teaching was in believing that Sabbatai Zevi was "the Messiah" and that the Halakha (Jewish law) was no longer binding. Rebbe Nachman did not do the same. He did not claim he was the Messiah, and when asked, "What do we do as Breslover Hasidim?" he replied, "Whatever it says in the Shulchan Aruch (Code of Jewish Law)."

(edit) Published works

Rebbe Nachman's Torah lessons and stories were published and disseminated mainly after his death by his disciple, Reb Noson:

  • Likutey Moharan ("Collected Teachings of Our Teacher, Rabbi Nachman") (vol. i., Ostrog, 1808; vol. ii., Moghilev, 1811; vol. iii., Ostrog, 1815)—Hasidic interpretations of the Tanakh, Midrashim, etc.
  • Sefer HaMidot (The Aleph-Bet Book) (Moghilev, 1821)—Treatises on morals, arranged alphabetically as a primer.
  • Tikkun HaKlali ("General Remedy")—Rebbe Nachman's order of ten Psalms to be recited for various problems, plus commentary by Reb Noson. Published as a separate book in 1821.
  • Sippurei Ma'asiyyot (Rabbi Nachman's Stories) (n.p., 1816)—13 seemingly simple "tales" in Hebrew and Yiddish that are filled with deep mystical secrets. The longest of these tales is The Seven Beggars,(21) which contains many kabbalistic themes and hidden allusions. Several fragmentary stories are also included in Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan's translation of the complete tales, Rabbi Nachman's Stories.

Rebbe Nachman also wrote two other books, the Sefer HaGanuz ("The Hidden Book") and the Sefer HaNisraf ("The Burned Book"), neither of which are extant. Rebbe Nachman told his disciples that these volumes contained deep mystical insights which few would be able to comprehend. He never showed the Sefer Ha-ganuz to anyone, and instructed Reb Noson to burn the latter's copy of Sefer Ha-nisraf in 1808. No one knows what was written in either manuscript.

(edit) Quotes

  • "If you believe that you can damage, then believe that you can fix."(23)
  • "Worldly desires are like sunbeams in a dark room. They seem solid until you try to grasp one."(24)
  • "It is very good to pour out your heart to God as you would to a true, good friend."(25)
  • "You are never given an obstacle you cannot overcome."(26)
  • "Know! A person needs to cross a very narrow bridge, but the most important thing is not to be afraid."(27)

(edit) See also

(edit) References

  1. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/984972.html
  2. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/1033648.html
  3. ^ Until the Mashiach, p. 2.
  4. ^ Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom: His Praises #1.
  5. ^ Ibid., #4.
  6. ^ Ibid., #19.
  7. ^ Until the Mashiach, p. 7.
  8. ^ Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom: His Pilgrimage to the Land of Israel #19.
  9. ^ Until the Mashiach, pp. 60-61.
  10. ^ Tzaddik #12.
  11. ^ Until the Mashiach, pp. 330-341.
  12. ^ Ibid., p. 140.
  13. ^ Ibid., pp. 143-144.
  14. ^ Tzaddik #114.
  15. ^ Until the Mashiach, pp. 204-206.
  16. ^ "Hasidic Jews celebrate holiday in Uman" Jewish Telegraphic Agency, 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
  17. ^ Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom #26.
  18. ^ Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom #235.
  19. ^ Tzaddik #122.
  20. ^ Tzaddik #19.
  21. ^ (1)
  22. ^ Likutey Moharan II, 24.
  23. ^ Ibid., II, 112.
  24. ^ Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom #6.
  25. ^ Kochavey Ohr, Anshey Moharan #4.
  26. ^ Likutey Moharan II, 46.
  27. ^ Ibid., II, 48. This saying has been set to music in Hebrew as the song Kol Ha-Olam Kulo (MIDI: (2)) (MP3: (3))

(edit) Bibliography

  • Greenbaum, Avraham (1987). Tzaddik: A Portrait of Rabbi Nachman. Jerusalem: Breslov Research Institute. ISBN 0-930213-17-3
  • Kaplan, Aryeh (1973). Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom. Jerusalem: Breslov Research Institute.
  • Kaplan, Aryeh (1985). Until the Mashiach: The Life of Rabbi Nachman. Jerusalem: Breslov Research Institute.
  • Kramer, Chaim (1989). Crossing the Narrow Bridge. Jerusalem: Breslov Research Institute. ISBN 0-930213-40-8
  • Kramer, Chaim (1992). Through Fire and Water: The Life of Reb Noson of Breslov. Jerusalem: Breslov Research Institute. ISBN 0-930213-44-0.

(edit) External links


Najman de BreslavOneRiotYahooAmazonTwitterdel.icio.us

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre

El Rabino (Rebe) Najman de Breslov (pequeña ciudad de la hoy Ucrania conocida también como Breslav o Breslev) nació el primer día del mes de Nissan (4 de abril de 1772). Su hilula (aniversario luctuoso) se celebra el 18 de Tishrei, el día 4 de Sucot fecha que coincidió en el calendario solar con el 16 de octubre de 1810. El Rebbe, como se le conoce en su círculo de seguidores, es un gran venerado tzadik. Continuador y pilar del movimiento jasídico, es bisnieto del Rabino Israel Ba'al Shem Tov, fundador del movimiento jasídico (quien nació en Medzeboz, hoy Ucrania). Algunos autores acentúan que su contribución principal es la combinación de la Cábala con el estudio profundo de la Torá. Un punto central de sus enseñanzas radica en la alegría. Su consejo continuo es alegría y la oración como herramienta principal en su método espiritual. El es un importante canal que aporta todo un nuevo sistema de pensamiento judío. Como todo gran tzadik, facilitó y simplificó en lenguaje el sistema judaico y su conocimiento lo hizo accesible a más personas. Tuvo cientos de seguidores en su vida, y su movimiento continúa hasta hoy en día con decenas de miles de miembros de su Jasidut. Es costumbre ir a visitar su tumba en Umán sobre todo en Rosh Hashaná, año nuevo del calendario judío.

Contenido





Vida (editar)

Siendo niño, el Rebe Najman tuvo el privilegio de ver a muchos de los grandes Tzadikim (hebreo, "Justos") que habían sido discípulos del Ba'al Shem Tov. Esto, junto con su noble linaje, lo preparó para su misión en la vida: acercar al pueblo judío a Dios y preparar el mundo para la llegada del Mesías. Luego de su boda (1785), el Rebe Najman vivió con sus suegros en Osatin. Cuando su suegro, que era viudo, volvió a casarse, Najman de Breslev se mudó a Medvedevka (aproximadamente en 1791), donde comenzó a atraer seguidores . Mientras estuvo en Medvedevka, el Rebe Najman hizo un viaje a la Tierra Santa (1798). Su estadía allí lo llevó a nuevas alturas en sus convicciones religiosas, al punto en que más tarde quiso que sólo se registraran en su obra cumbre, el Likutey Moharán, aquellas lecciones que enseñó luego de su peregrinaje. Después de su retorno (verano del 1799), el Rebe Najmán siguió viviendo en Medvedevka poco más de un año.

De Medvedevka, el Rebe Najman se mudó a Zlatipolia, donde vivió dos años, pese a la tremenda oposición por parte del Shpola Zeide y de sus seguidores de los pueblos vecinos. De allí, se mudó a Breslev (otoño de 1802), en donde contrajo tuberculosis, enfermedad que a la postre le llevó a la muerte. Fue también en Breslev que el rabino Natán de Breslev, su discípulo más famoso, se encontró por primera vez con él. Inmediatamente después de Sucot del año 1808, el Rebe Najman viajó a Lemberg, aparentemente para recibir tratamiento médico para su mal. De hecho, el Rebe Najmán les explicó a sus acólitos, que uno de los motivos de ese viaje era combatir el ateísmo, siendo que someterse al tratamiento médico, era meramente una herramienta para lograrlo. A su regreso, incrementó su discurso sobre la importancia de fortalecer la fe, dando a entender que sus lecciones luego de Lemberg tenían la intención de ser su legado ético.

Rabi Najman de Breslev se refirió a menudo de la importancia se su obra principal, Likutey Moharán. Dijo que al que la estudiase con honestidad, se le aflojarían las fibras del corazón, y llegaría a ser capaz de acercarse a Dios. Comentó incluso que, de ser necesario, uno debería vender incluso su almohada para poder comprar el libro. Y lo más importante, afirmó que sus lecciones eran "el comienzo de la Redención", y que la gente debería estudiar sus enseñanzas lo suficientemente bien como para estar absolutamente versados en cada una de las lecciones. En la primavera del año 1810, el Rebe Najman dejó Breslev por última vez para ir a Umán, la ciudad ucraniana que eligió como el lugar para su descanso final. Sus principales esfuerzos durante su último medio año de vida, estuvieron centrados en dar ánimos a sus seguidores para que se mantuviesen firmes en sus enseñanzas, haciendo que los judíos alejados de la Torá volviesen a la fe, y elevando las almas de aquellos que ya habían partido de este mundo. El Rabi Najman de Breslev falleció un martes a la tarde, el segundo día de Jol Hamoed Sucot, 18 de Tishrei del 5571 según el Calendario hebreo, el 16 de octubre de 1810 según el Calendario gregoriano, y fue enterrado en el antiguo cementerio de Uman en medio de 20.000 mártires judíos que habían sido masacrados por los Jaidamakos unos cuarenta años antes.

Trabajos Publicados (editar)

  • Likutey Moharán
  • Séfer Hamidot (Libro de los Atributos)
  • Tikún Haklalí
  • Sipurei Ma'asiyot (Los cuentos de Rabí Najman)
  • Cuatro Lecciones del Rabino Najman de Breslev
  • La Silla Vacía

Fuentes (editar)

Until The Mashiaj (Breslov Research Institute, 1985.

Tzaddik (Breslov Research Institute, 1987.

  • Saverio Campanini, Il mare dell'esilio: In margine a un frammento di Rabbi Nachman di Breslav, en «Mediterraneo Antico», 4 (2001), pp. 127-136.

Enlaces externos (editar)





Encyclopedia > Rabbi Nachman of Breslov

Rabbi (or Rebbe) Nachman of Breslov (1772 - 1810) was the great-grandson of Rebbe Israel, the founder of Hasidic Judaism. Nachman developed a following during his lifetime that has continued in the two centuries since his death: his followers today are known as "Breslavers", and the movement itself is called Breslov.


Nachman was born in Mezhibuz, Ukraine, and in his short life achieved much acclaim as a teacher and spiritual leader. Nachman was an extreme example of the hassidic movement, living in poverty and better known for his stories and songs than his Torah scholarship. Thirteen canonical stories have been published and are considered precursors to the later literary style of such authors as Franz Kafka (who may have been acquainted with them). Other teachings of his are epitomized in his famous adage: "It is a great mitzvah (divine commandment) to always be happy!"


Another prominent feature of Nachman's teachings is asceticism, best expressed in regard to sexuality. A well-known example of this is his tikkun, or "prayer for spiritual correction," which focuses on the dangers of masturbation and the severe damage it causes one to fall to lowly animalistic depths .


For most of the last 8 years of his life, he lived in Breslov, Ukraine, continuing his work as a rabbi and Kabbalist and teaching his growing band of followers. Upon his death in Uman, Ukraine, his followers chose not to select a new teacher, but rather to follow Nachman's teachings (they began calling him "the Rebbe"). His teachings, which were mostly oral, were transcribed by Nathan, thus keeping the movement alive.


To this day, Breslavers see Nachman as their spiritual leader. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, his tomb in Uman is once again a center of pilgrimage for thousands of hassidim every year, particularly during the High Holy Days. The movement has also managed to grow considerably, with many new adherents from among formerly secular Jews who are drawn to the ascetism and mysticism.


Nachman of Breslov - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nachman of Breslov also known as Reb Nachman of Breslav, Nachman from Uman, or simply as Rebbe Nachman (April 4, 1772 – October 16, 1810) was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic dynasty.

Nachman was born in the town of Mezhibuzh, Ukraine.

Rebbe Nachman died of tuberculosis at the age of 38 on the fourth day of Chol HaMoed Sukkot, and was buried in that cemetery.

en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rabbi_Nachman_of_Breslov (2846 words)



Breslov (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)

Breslover Chassidism is most unusual in that it has no living rebbe, and has not had one for almost two hundred years.

In 1805, upon Rabbi Nachman's death, it was decided not to select a new leader for the movement, but to study rather the teachings left behind by Nachman.

Breslovers describe themselves as dedicated to fulfilling the spirit of the Torah's laws, as well as the letter of them: they see Torah living as the means to a joyful existence.

bopedia.com /en/wikipedia/b/br/breslov.html (177 words)



Na Nach Nachma - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

It is a sound-poem based on the four Hebrew letters of the name Nachman, referring to the founder of the Breslov movement, Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, along with a reference to his burial place in Uman, Ukraine.

Rabbi Odesser believed the "Letter from Heaven" was a genuine miracle, pointing out that the bookcase where the petek (note) appeared was locked at the time, and he had the only key.

Rabbi Zev Reichmann (head of the Yeshiva University Mechina Program, student of Rav Aaron Soloveitchik, and son of Rav Herschel Reichmann) notes that many within common Orthodox society hold the view that people who wear "Na Nach Nachma" yarmulkes (see below) are not considered to be real Breslovers.

en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Na_Nach_Nachma (1442 words)



Judaism 101 - Rabbi Nachman of Breslov - A Glossary of Basic Jewish Terms and Concepts - OU.ORG

Rabbi Nachman of Breslov was one of the most creative, influential and profound of the Chassidic masters.

Rabbi Nachman died of Tuberculoses at the age of 38.

Despite the fact that there was never another “Breslov Rebbe” to fill his place, the mystery and depth of his teachings continue to attract students today, and Breslover Chassidism is one of the largest and most vibrant of Chassidic groups.

www.ou.org /about/judaism/rabbis/breslov.htm (317 words)



S.C.J. FAQ: Section 2.10. Who We Are: What is Breslov Chasidism?

The Breslov (sometimes called Bratzlav) movement was founded by Rabbi Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810), who was the great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Chassidism, through his granddaughter Feige.

The Breslov where Rebbe Nachman lived is a small Ukranian town, located on the Bug River, latitude 48.50 N longitude 28.55 E, midway between Tulchin to the south and Nemirov to the north; 9 miles or 15 kilometers from each.

Breslover Chassidim today do not have a "Rebbe in the flesh," and each individual Chassid is free to go to any Jewish guide or teacher he (or she) feels comfortable with.

www.shamash.org /lists/scj-faq/HTML/faq/02-10.html (784 words)



The Breslov Center

In his commentary, Rabbi Aryeh Kaplan suggests that the Bard corresponds to the sefirah of Tif’eret and the biblical personage of Jacob, as the verse states, "The voice is the voice of Jacob."12 Therefore, poetry expresses the unification of Tif’eret and Malkhut.

Rabbi Shmuel Halevi Horowitz, Avaneha Barzel in Kokhvei ‘Or (Jerusalem: Makhon Torat HaNetzach, 1998), pp.

Rabbi Abraham ben Nachman Chazan of Tulchin, Kochvei Ohr, pp.

www.nachalnovea.com /breslovcenter/articles/article_poetry.htm (1512 words)



Breslov Hasidism

The Breslov movement was founded by Rabbi Nachman of Breslov (1772­1810), who was the great­grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of Hasidism.

Rebbe Nachman is buried in Uman in the Ukraine.

Breslover Hasidim today do not have a "Rebbe in the flesh," and each Hasid is free to go to any guide or teacher with whom they feel comfortable.

www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/Judaism/Breslov_Hasidism.html (372 words)



Rabbi Nachman Overview I: Guidance for Life

R. Nachman was born in Medzeboz, Ukraine in 1772, and from early childhood devoted himself to Torah, prayer and intense devotion.

Rabbi Nachman died in Uman in 1810 and was buried amid the mass graves of the martyrs.

Rabbi Nachman's conversations in Rabbi Nachman's Wisdom are the ideal introduction to his style and spiritual pathway, with many jewels of his wisdom and practical advice in a wide variety of areas.

www.azamra.org /Torah/Introduction/Overview1.htm (1906 words)



REBBE NACHMAN (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)

Rebbe Nachman was born in 1772 in the Ukrainian town of Medzeboz.

Instead of appointing a new Rebbe, they continued to turn to Rebbe Nachman's teachings for inspiration and guidance and still looked on him as `the Rebbe.' The Breslover Chassidim have done so ever since, studying his writings and endeavoring to follow his teachings in their day-to-day lives.

Rebbe Nachman's own closest disciples, themselves outstanding Tzaddikim and scholars, handed his teachings on to their own pupils, thus establishing the continuity of the movement.

www.breslov.org /rebbenachman.html (388 words)



Judaism 101: Sages and Scholars

Rabbi Hillel was born to a wealthy family in Babylonia, but came to Jerusalem without the financial support of his family and supported himself as a woodcutter.

Rabbi Shammai was an engineer, known for the strictness of his views.

Breslov is a town in the Ukraine where Rabbi Nachman spent the end of his life, but some say the name Breslov comes from the Hebrew bris lev, meaning "covenant of the heart." He emphasized living life with joy and happiness.

www.jewfaq.org /sages.htm (1177 words)



Rabbi Nachman Overview II: Likutey Moharan

Breslover literature includes graphic accounts of the occasions when Rabbi Nachman originally gave quite a number of the discourses in Likutey Moharan, conveying the attendant drama and intensity.

Thousands and thousands of students of Rabbi Nachman's works -- outstanding Tzadikim, scholars and many other seekers of truth in all walks of life -- testify that diligent study of his teachings is be repaid with gifts of abundant light, vitality and inspiration.

Rabbi Noson later rearranged all the practical advice in Kitzur Likutey Moharan by subject and printed it under the title of Likutey Etzot ("Collected Advice", translated as Rabbi Nachman's Advice).

www.barmitzva.org /Torah/Introduction/Overview2.htm (2085 words)



The Letter from Heaven - Breslov (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)

Of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, his Holy memory is blessed, sent to his precious pupil, Rabbi Israel Ber Odesser, may his merit protect us, in 1922 to the Yeshiva of Rabbi Me’ir Baal HaNess located in Tiberias, Israel.

That is explained, in the introduction of the principal book of Rabbi Nachman: The “Tephila” (Supplication) have the power to change everything, and the essence of Rabbi Nachman’s teachings is Supplication, because it is the essence of the heart, and the authentic tradition.

Rabbi Israel said and revealed several times, that he is a true man; he is the lung of the Creation, and its resurrection… but that the chassidic sect called “Chabad” (…) is the absolute lie, and does not deserve the least attention.

www.angelfire.com /empire/odesser/english.html (896 words)



English Reading List (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)

Rabbi Sholom Dovber Schneersohn (1860‑1920) was the fifth Chabad Rebbe.

Based on classes given by Rabbi Kaplan, the first part is an exposition of the Kabbalistic view of the universe, and the second a discussion of meditation and Kabbalah based on the vision of Ezekiel.

Rabbi Nachman's insights into the concept of free will, based on the famous Talmudic passage, "Four entered Paridise" that is also important for Kabbala study.

www.ascent.org.il /NewAscentOfSafed/Teachings/Advanced/Kabbala/Booklist4.html (3408 words)



Recommended Chasidic Works

Rabbi Shalom Dovber Schneersohn (1860-1920) was the fifth Chabad Rebbe.

as expounded in Breslov Chasidism, particularly in Likutei Halachot by Rabbi Nathan of Nemirov.

Rabbi Nachman's insights into the concept of free will, based on the famous Talmudic passage "Four entered Paradise", that is also important for Kabbala study.

www.kabbalaonline.org /Reference/readings/Recommended_Chasidic_Works.asp (1303 words)



Event Gear Event Info by Html Gear

Rabbi Nachman was the great grandson of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov, who led one of the greatest spiritual revivals-renewals ever to occur among the Jewish people, two hundred years ago.

Rabbi Nachman followed in the tradition of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov, Rabbi Isaac Luria and Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai.

Rabbi Luria, known as the Arizal, lived in the 16th century and was one of the greatest luminaries and expounders of Jewish mystical and spiritual thought.

htmlgear.tripod.com /event/control.event?a=render&style=event&u=messiahtruth&i=1&rec=60 (175 words)



Rabbi Nachman of Breslov

The great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, Rabbi Nachman of Breslov (sometimes called Bratzlav, Breslau or Bratislava) was one of the most creative, influential and profound of the Chassidic masters and the founder of the Breslover Chasidic sect.

Breslov is a town in the Ukraine where Rabbi Nachman spent the end of his life, but some say the name Breslov comes from the Hebrew bris lev, meaning "covenant of the heart."

From his youth, he followed a path of asceticism and prayer, though he warned his followers not to abuse themselves physically.

www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org /jsource/biography/Nachman.html (348 words)



Shir Na'im : Rabbi Nachman of Breslov

Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, Shir Na’im/Song of Delight.

Rabbi Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810), great-grandson of Israel Ba’al Shem Tov, founder of the East-European Hasidic movement, is considered by many the “genius of Hasidism.” His mysteriously allusive lessons and stories have invited numerous studies, both by his followers, the Breslov Hasidim, and by academic scholars of various stripes.

While fiercely faithful to the living tradition of Breslov (the book comes with the encouragement and input of Rabbi Elazar Kenig, leader of the Breslov Hasidim of Tsefat), Rabbi David Sears is a man with his finger on the pulse of contemporary society.

www.orot.com /shir.html (398 words)



Rabbi Nachman's Stories

Rebbe Nachman was born on the first of Nissan of the year 5532 (1772 C.E.) in the town of Mezhibuzh to Reb Simcha the son of Rabbi Nachman Horodenker, who was a leading disciple of the Baal Shem Tov, and Feiga the daughter of Odel, who was the daughter of the Baal Shem Tov.

Rebbe Nachman’s mother, Feiga, was known far and wide as “Feiga the prophetess,” for she was accustomed to see her grandfather the Baal Shem Tov and her other holy ancestors in visions that came to her while awake and sleeping.

Rebbe Nachman explained to his followers that his burial among them would bring them the final spiritual rectification that they had been waiting for and that being buried among all of those holy martyrs was a great privilege.

www.shuvubonim.org /ravn.html (2098 words)



OU.ORG Rabbi Biography Index

Rabbi Moshe Cordovero, The Ark of the Torah (1522-1570)

Rabbi Israel Meir Kagan, The Chofetz Chaim (1838-1933)

Rabbi Bachaya Ibn Pakuda (Eleventh Century) and the Duties of the Heart

www.ou.org /resources/bios.htm (134 words)



Glossary of Kabbalah and Chassidut: B

Ba'al Shem Tov was the title given to Rabbi Yisrael ben Eliezer (1698-1760), the founder of Chassidic movement.

Breslov is the name of the town in the Ukraine where Rebbe Nachman spent most of the last eight years of his life.

Rabbi Nachman was the great grandson of Rabbi Yisrael Ba'al Shem Tov, and founder of Breslov Chassidut over two hundred years ago.

www.inner.org /glossary/gloss_b.htm (1002 words)



Journey to Uman: Breslov Pilgrimage 1997

Rabbi Nachman was born in 1772 in what is now the Ukrainian Republic, and in the founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement.

Rabbi Kramer said that Breslov is different from the other Hasidic groups, where one is usually born into it.

Rabbi Kramer had a sign up on the door (for a joke) that said, "Welcome to the Waldorf Astoria." (His "luxury hotel" actually had heat!) Life in Uman was primitive, but I was prepared for all this by the rural conditions that my wife and I are living under in northern Minnesota.

www.pinenet.com /rooster/uman.html (6892 words)



Being Alone With God

Rabbi Chaninah ben Chachinai says: One who is awake at night, and who goes out on the road alone, and mefaneh libo le’batalah (literally, turns his heart to idle thoughts), behold, he becomes mit’chayev be’nafsho (literally, liable for his own soul) (Pirkei Avot 3:5).

As Rabbi Nachman teaches elsewhere, our most basic desires and needs were implanted in us by our Creator for the purpose of arousing in us the realization of our dependence on Him.

Rabbi Nachman teaches that the first step is to dissociate ourselves from them, indeed from any identification with them or the physical body of which they are expressions.

www.geulah.org /6aaloned.htm (2257 words)



Podcast.net - The Podcast Directory

Rabbi Bunam was once walking outside of the city with some of his disciples.

The rabbi bent, picked up a speck of sand, looked at it and then the rabbi put it back exactly where he found it.

Today's quote comes from Rabbi Nachman of Breslov, "The core of a person is their mind's understanding.

www.podcast.net /show/25381 (1055 words)



Breslov Books Mile Chai Jewish Books and Judaica

Rooted in the Bible, Talmud and Kabbalah, this tradition finds its fullest expression in the teachings of the outstanding Chassidic luminary, Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810).

The Wings of the Sun is a clear, informative study of Rebbe Nachman's teachings on healing, providing sound yet easily understood explanations of profound kabbalistic concepts, and offering a wealth of practical guidance for those facing illness or caring for the sick.

Containing a wealth of anecdotes from the lives of leading Breslover Chassidim of recent times, together with their oral teachings, this works answers many of the practical questions that puzzle those who have begun to make their acquaintance with Breslov.

www.milechai.com /product2/books/breslov.html (364 words)



Boston.com / News / Local / Mass. / Sustenance in prison Seder

Their inspiration and teacher is Rabbi Natan Schafer, a soft-spoken man with a gentle smile who serves as the Jewish chaplain for seven Massachusetts prisons.

Schafer, who is 58, was a student and friend of the late Rabbi Carlebach, the prolific Jewish songwriter and storyteller.

The gray light from the outside was fading, and as the rabbi began to talk, the room fell silent.

www.boston.com /news/local/massachusetts/articles/2004/04/22/sustenance_in_prison_seder (504 words)



Shuvu Bonim

From the Rosh Yeshiva, Rabbi Eliezer Berland, shlit"a.

A letter regarding the teachings of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov.

As Rabbi Nachman taught, only once there is complete unity among the Jewish people, will there be an influence upon the nations of the world to come to harmony.

www.shuvubonim.org (375 words)



Judaism.com - Until the Mashiach The Life of Rabbi Nachman By: Aryeh Kaplan

Rabbi Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810) was a leader who, while passionately concerned about the currents of his time, rose way above to become a torch to all the ensuing generations.

Rabbi Kaplan's biography is the fruit of meticulous research into all the considerable amount of surviving source material, including the oral tradition of the Breslover Chassidim themselves.

The work is accompanied by a rich array of supplementary material covering Rabbi Nachman's family and leading followers, other key personages in his life and period, contemporary historical trends, and the towns and cities which figure in his career.

www.judaism.com /display.asp?type=quicksearch&etn=CAHAD (245 words)



What should I study? (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)

It is presented differently in Tanya by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi (1745—1813), and derivative literature of the ChaBaD movement, and in the writings of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810).

With regard to Kabbalistic devotions: even the most advanced masters know that the ancient blessings and prayers of the everyday Siddur, which were composed by outstanding prophets, contain all the necessary devotions to become attached to the God on the highest of levels.

Rabbi Nachman of Breslov taught that the most ancient Kabbalistic devotion is hisbodedus, secluded prayer and meditation.

www.barmitzva.org /Kabbalah/FAQ/24.htm (339 words)



Judaism.com - Tzaddik - A Portrait of Rabbi Nachman Chayey Moharan By: Nathan Breslov (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)

Judaism.com - Tzaddik - A Portrait of Rabbi Nachman Chayey Moharan By: Nathan Breslov

It is the most important sourcebook we have about the life of this outstanding sage, mystic, leader and teacher, by the one who knew him best, his closest pupil, Rabbi Nathan.

The picture of Rabbi Nachman that emerges is of one who, while being a man of flesh and blood, lived on an entirely different plane from other people.

www.judaism.com /display.asp?etn=CAHAH (174 words)

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